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However, comparisons made in 2009 of 51 sequences of segment 5 and 78 sequences of segment 6 from Chilean isolates, obtained from Atlantic salmon since 2007, showed that Chilean isolates have a Norwegian origin.
Evidence strongly suggests that ISAV was introduced in Chile as an avirulent strain that mutated into a virulent strain (35).
The function of most proteins encoded by the segments of ISAV has been assigned according to their similarities to the proteins encoded by the influenza A virus.
Thus, polymerase, which in influenza A virus synthesizes both m RNA and v RNA, is constituted by three putative proteins coded by segment 1 (cid, PA [3, 64, 72]).
Based on the similarity to segments 2 and 8 of Canadian virus isolates in 2001, Chilean ISAV isolated from infected Coho salmon was initially classified as the North American genotype (34, 56).Unlike influenza A viruses, where hemagglutinin and fusion activity are present in the same polypeptide chain, fusion and hemagglutinin activity in ISAV correspond to two independent proteins coded by segments 5 and 6, respectively, making ISAV the first member of the family having these activities in different proteins (4).